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Creating a sloping surface at the edges of the parts to beautify, deburr or create a space for welding is called chamfering operation. This operation is performed either with general machines or with special chamfering machines. Industrialists process the chamfering process for different reasons and with different machines.
The purpose of chamfering operations is to eliminate sharp edges and deburrs of round and flat parts such as the edges of rods, pipes, holes, screws and nuts, edges of flat plates, etc. The chamfering machine acts as a kind of forming machine based on chipping at a certain angle (mostly 45 degrees and depending on the needs of the consumer).
Purpose of deburring
- Facilitate the assembly process:
- Increased resistance in the welding process:
- Prevention of possible injuries:
- For beautification:
In order to facilitate assembly or to place two pieces inside each other, one of those pieces and sometimes both are chamfered. Bolts and seals are obvious examples which are chamfered.
When we want to weld two metal pieces to each other, the welding place must have a good penetration depth so that it can have sufficient strength under pressure and stress conditions. For this purpose, the edges of the parts are chamfered to create a better weld penetration. Creating a V in two pieces that are to be welded butt by butt are examples of this.
The edges of the part may become sharp during cutting, and its sharpness may cause damage to the operator or even to the adjacent part. The edges of the parts are chamfered to reduce potential damage.
Sometimes the parts are chamfered for beautification.
Manual chamfering and chamfering through the machine
Chamfering is done both manually and with the machine. In manual chamfering, the driving force is created by the operator. In such a way that the edges of the parts are chamfered using the operator's physical force and hand tools such as razors. This method is used for light parts that do not have much precision. Manual chamfering is widely used in molding and forging industries. compared to manual chamfering, chamfering machines create a sloping surface at the edges of the workpiece through chipping or grinding. Whenever we want to have series production or the parts are large in terms of volume and it is not possible to manually chamfer, we use chamfering machines.
Types of chamfering machines
As mentioned above, there are many types of chamfering machines. Some of them are designed and built for chamfering and perform chamfering operations in a fixed and specific way. In these machines, the part is placed in the workpiece and the tool performs the chamfering process. Therefore, in short, the use of chamfering machines can increase the quality and quantity of production.
There are also machines whose main job is not to chamfer, but they can do the chamfering operation as a final operation. For example, grinding and turning machines are in this group. it should be noted that robotic machines can also be used for the chamfering process, but they are not very cost-effective.
Tube chamfering machine
We chamfer the pipes for three reasons. The first reason is that when we want to weld two pipes head to head, in order to have more welding cross section, we chamfer the two ends of the pipe (which are to be welded together). In this case, when the two ends of the chamfered pipe are placed next to each other, they create a V-shaped groove. This V form increases the weld depth and surface area. Reason 2: Whenever we want to place a pipe with a smaller diameter in the inside of another pipe with a relatively larger diameter, we chamfer the smaller diameter head pipe. The third reason for reducing damage to the cutting edges of pipes; We chamfer the ends of the pipes.
Types of pipe chamfer
- Internal chamfering:
- External chamfering:
If the pipes or rotating parts have internal edges and the need for internal chamfering is felt, the internal chamfering operation is performed. In internal chamfering, the chamfering tool is placed inside the part and chamfers the inner edges. Its purpose is to eliminate the internal roughness of the pipe. Sometimes pipes are used to transfer high viscosity fluids and to prevent material deposition in the bulge, chamfering operations are performed inside the pipes.
In external chamfering, the outer edges of the parts are chamfered to provide suitable conditions for subsequent processes. In this case, depending on the type of machine, the piece can be placed horizontally or vertically. The process of external chamfering of pipes can be divided into two categories in terms of performance.
When the piece is placed in the holder with a fixed position and the cutting tools rotate around the axis of the pipe and chamfering is done. If the cutting angle is 45 degrees and constant, the process is called chamfering and if different angles are considered, it is called Beveling. In some cases, we see a combination of boring and chamfering. In such a way that the pipe or the desired piece is placed between two vertical plates. Notice that the angle between the two plates is the angle we want to create on the piece. After that, by moving the piece between these two plates, chamfering and beveling operations are performed together.
Some industrialists believe that the degree of angle created is a good guide in distinguishing between beveling and chamfering. The method of cutting has no effect on this diagnosis. If the final form has an angle of 45 degrees, it can be said that the edge is chamfered. But if the created edge is not vertical; The beveling process has been performed on that part.
The first category is for the chamfering process of heavy and large pipes. Heavy parts are difficult to move on their own and require transport machines to move them inside the machine. Note that by moving the heavy part, there is a possibility of damaging the environment around the part or it may be damaged when moving inside the machine, the part itself or the machine.
This can also be used when the pipes are small in size and require a large production circulation. Most of the time, in pipe chamfering machines and bolting machines, the piece is fixed and the cutting tools rotate around it and the chamfering operation takes place.
In external chamfering, the amount of angle is very important. First, the machine is adjusted according to the desired angle and then the tube is placed between the machine. The video below shows the external chamfering process in the position of a fixed part and a moving tool.
But in the other case, the tool is fixed and the tube rotates. This is common for light and medium-sized pipes. In this case, the workpiece is placed inside the clamp, which is mainly in the form of three jaws chuck (or four jaws chuck, for more precise adjustment and to prevent the pipe from limping during rotation), and begins to rotate. The tool contacts the edge of the pipe gently and at an angle, and the chipping or chamfering operation is performed. Note that some large and heavy pipes chamfering machines are equipped with cutting systems. In these machines, the chamfering tool is stationary and the part move inside the machine. The pipe enters the machine and at the same time as cutting it, the chamfering process is performed. In this case, significant savings in energy consumption and process time are seen. pipes chamfering with machines combined with other processes is less used because it requires a lot of space and automatic machines.
It should be noted that chipping and chamfering operations are similar in terms of chipping. In chipping, the nominal size of the pipe is usually reduced, but in chamfering, only the edge of the chip is removed and shaped.
Chamfering through the Laser machine
In some cases, the laser machine can also be used as a machine that can operate in the chamfering process. But in general in the metalworking industry, lasers are mostly used in the field of cutting and welding, but in the field of chamfering, its use is rare. Unless some deburrs (rough surfaces) are very delicate and require very high accuracy for chamfering. The cause for high quality laser chamfering is its precise structure.
The difference between deburring and chamfering
chamfering is used to smooth and create an angle at the edge of the parts. But deburring is used to eliminate roughness of the entire surface of the part.
In deburring process, all parts of the piece are contacted and the surface is not chamfered separately. While in the chamfering operation, only the area will be involved.
Selecting the type of pipe chamfer
Some pipe chamfering machines operate one-way. In this way, the pipe enters the machine from one side and the chamfering process is performed. But in other machines, the tube is simultaneously chamfered symmetrically on both sides. The gears used on both sides of the machine must be in opposite directions. Sometimes the chamfering machine and the cutting machine are combined. Which have many applications in industry. It also saves money, time and energy. The most important efficiency of these machines is their energy consumption, which is greatly reduced.
Before welding the metal sheets to each other, a series of steps are performed on them to allow them to be connected. Sheet chamfering is an important and sensitive step and requires advanced machines, and preferably chamfering machines are used.
It is mostly used for special parts with special shapes. This type of chamfer is for parts that are a set of rounded edges or flat edges. These machines are designed and manufactured based on the shape and technical specifications of the parts and customer expectations.
Some manufacturers of chamfering machines have made a variety of portable or prototype machines that cause chamfering of large and non-portable parts. Another feature is the possibility of chamfering in the workplace, for example, gas transmission pipes can be chamfered in the installation site to create a better welding depth when connecting two pipes to each other. Some of them can also be added to other machines as a complementary process (such as chamfering machines that can be placed on the rails of universal lathes). The advantage is to perform several metalworking processes without wasting time and without increasing costs.
Chamfering machines can be divided into the following types in terms of application:
- Types of chamfering machines for copper and steel pipes
- Types of chamfering machines for steel and aluminum sheets
- Types of chamfering machines for internal and external holes
- All kinds of bolt and nut chamfering machines
- Types of chamfering machines for gas pipes
- Types of chamfering machines for boilers and power plants
The advantages of chamfering operations will be discussed in the following:
- Increases the safety of people dealing with industrial parts.
- Reduces potential damage to other components.
- Facilitates assembly.
- Increases the resistance of the edges of the parts to possible stresses.
Advantages of chamfering machines:
- Working with them is easy and fast.
- They can be used for heavy and light uses.
- It does not require much maintenance.
- These machines are very durable.
- Their accessories are available.
Automatic chamfering machines are offered in different categories, which include the following. By considering technical and commercial points, you can choose the best and most efficient ones according to the characteristics of your work piece:
- Automatic bar chamfering machine
- Automatic tube/pipe chamfering machine
- Automatic bolt chamfering machine
- Automatic double head chamfering machine
- Automatic double sided chamfering machine
Purchasing a chamfering machine
Knowledge of technical and commercial tips is very important to buy a forming machine. For example, technical tips include two sections: technical information about the workpiece or product, and technical information about the chamfering machine, which will be covered before dealing with commercial tips. Awareness of commercial information increases the ease of the purchase process and its reliability.
Sending a written request along with work plans of the final products and technical characteristics of the parts, such as the appearance of the parts, material, dimensions, amount of desired chamfer and tolerances, are the basic information for purchasing a chamfering machine. After receiving the offers of the manufacturer of casting machines, you can change the parts, facilities and systems installed on the machine to your liking and according to the production needs. Therefore, knowing your needs and having sufficient knowledge of the machines and their systems can make a good purchase for you.
The material of the parts, their dimensions, whether they are automatic, manual or robotic, and the brand of parts used in the manufacturing of chamfering machines can affect the price of the sheet chamfering machine. Chamfering machines can chamfer copper, steel, brass, aluminum, etc. parts. If second-hand chamfering machines are as efficient as first-hand machines and meet production needs, it is recommended that you consider second-hand machines to reduce the purchase cost.
The following tips can be important when buying a chamfer:
- Choose the material of the cutting blades and chamfering tools according to the material of the parts and their useful life.
- Some chamfers use automatic feeders, grab the work piece, move it and chamfer it.
- Machine safety and ease of use will increase production speed.
- Consider the dimensions of the parts.
- Consider the machine's ability at the angle and depth of chamfering.
- in order to reduce the time of chamfering operation, some chamfering machines (usually for pipe chamfering) are made in two types, which allows chamfering both ends of the piece at the same time.
- Compare and examine the required production circulation and the production circulation of the machine.
- Consider the amount of dust, temperature changes, humidity and its distance from other machine.
- Specify the number of working days, shifts and working hours of each shift.
- Electronic systems such as wires, clamps, keyboards, electric motors and if there is a control panel, the machine can be changed according to your needs.
- You can also specify the hydraulic system, pipes, clamps, pistons, hydraulic filtration and fluid type.
- Provide precise adjustment and easy access to worn and highly-used parts in order to perform replacement and repair operations.
- You can use a cooling system to prevent damage and increase the efficiency of the cutting blades and the work piece edge.
- Ask the manufacturer to provide security measures for the machine.
- Request a list and map of worn and highly-used parts from the manufacturer.
- Ask the manufacturer of the machine for the location of electrical and wiring parts of the machine, mechanical and sometimes hydraulic systems, list of consumable parts, connection points of cables of electronic systems, maintenance manual of the machine and its predicted errors.
- Enter the necessary agreements regarding after-sales services such as transportation, installation, training, replacement and repair warranty, etc. by the manufacturer in writing and have them signed by both parties.
This American company is engaged in the production of various types of metal industry machines, including chamfering, threading, welding and other industrial machines and equipment. The video below shows one of the company's pipe chamfering machines.