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Sheet metal bending machines
Sheet bending is a process in which one or more external forces are applied to a metal sheet to overcome its tensile strength. As a result, while the properties of the sheet remain intact, it changes state from the elastic medium to the plastic medium, changing the shape of the sheet.
Metal sheet bending machines are divided into different types including press brake machines, rolled sheet bending machines, folding machines, power presses, and heavy presses (will be mentioned in the section on presses). Today, due to the numerous and advanced machines produced in the sheet bending industry, complex shapes and different angles can be created. In the following, we will examine the types of metal sheet bending machines:
Types of metal sheet bending machines
Metal sheet bending machines can be categorized in terms of the sheet material and even produced based on the sheets. These machines are produced in different types, but the main metal sheet bending machines used in the sheet bending industry are divided into two categories: steel sheet bending machines and galvanized or gable sheet bending machines. Steel sheet bending machines have more power and are larger in volume than galvanized sheet bending machines. On the other hand, galvanized sheet bending machines must work accurately and without slipping because any slipping, shaking or incorrect placement of the sheet on the mold creates lines on the surface of the sheet and as a result, the zinc coating on the sheet surface is lost and there will be a risk of rust and rot.
Rolled steel sheet bending machines have stronger rolls than different types of galvanized bending machines. These machines are more expensive to produce, heavier, and thus more expensive to maintain.
Steel press brake sheet bending machines should have a higher tonnage than the galvanized type. Their molds are harder and their mandrels are plated and special for bending these sheets. It goes without saying that as the production capacity of the machine increases, the cost of purchasing and manufacturing it also increases.
The working process of rolled sheet bending machines is such that after the sheet is placed between the rolls, pressure is applied to the rolls by hydraulic force. Continuous movement of the sheet between the rolls causes bending due to exertion of very high pressure and disrupts the tensile and compressive strengths of the sheet. As mentioned earlier, this can be performed by three or more rolls.
The advantages of this machine include the capability of being tailored to the customer needs, affordable price, strength, and relative variety in sheet bending, etc.
2-roll or sheet metal bending machine
- The desired shape can be created with one course.
- When performing processes such as punching, cutting and rolling, the metal plate does not become curved or cracked.
- Does not cause wrinkles, lines and scratches on the surface of the parts.
- If the diameter and the distance between the two rollers change, the diameter of the parts does not change, so there is no need for much precision and the machine is easy to use.
- They are not suitable for creating bends with small diameter and need to make and use guide rollers.
- The maximum thickness of the sheets bent by this method is between 6-9 mm
3-roll plate bending machine
- It is easy to use and does not have a difficult stage.
- Its CNC type has precise function and offers different bending nettles.
- The probability of error is very low.
- The machine is easy to clean.
- Easy to repair and low maintenance cost.
- The upper rollers can be replaced with the required diameters.
- There is no need for much contact and communication between the operator's machine.
- No need for expensive ancillary equipment.
- They are able to create all kinds of cones with large angles.
- It costs less than a 4-roll machine and sometimes has better performance.
- Its rolling speed is less than 4-roll type.
- It is not able to create multi-part arches
4-roll sheet metal bending machine
- Before performing the bending operation, it is necessary to load and adjust the sheet only once.
- Variety in creating different shapes
- Sheets can be shaped or smoothed.
- Provides a wide range of rolling sheets.
- It has a high degree of automation.
- It can be equipped with a feeding system.
- It leaves up to one and a half times the thickness of the sheet in a straight line
Press brake sheet bending machines
- Extensive applications in most industries
- Variety in the type of bend
- High power
- Extremely accurate and fast performance
- Scheduling capability
Folding metal sheet bending machines
These machines can bend the sheets with good accuracy and speed. 2-roll sheet bending machines are efficient, high-precision and automatic equipment. The upper roller in this machine is made of hard metal and the lower roller is made of elastic material covered with high-strength polyurethane. The 2-roll plate bending machine is capable of creating cylindrical, semicircular and other curved shapes. The machines are made of two rollers and a sheet of metal passes through them. The rolling force applied to the sheet creates geometric shapes. Some models have the ability to create flanges but do not support other geometric shapes.
Advantages and disadvantages of 2-roll bending machines:Advantages:
These types of devices are usually made to bend sheets and deform them (conical-circular) in different dimensions and shapes. Such sheets are used in the body of industrial equipment, production of boilers, etc. Another feature of the rolled sheet bending machine is smoothing the sheets. Rolled metal sheet bending machines are also produced in three-roll and sometimes four-roll versions. The dimensions of the machine and its rolls depend on the needs of the customer and the dimensions of the products to be manufactured. The main components are the rolls, the control panel, pressure indicator gauge, hydraulic chamber, transmission system, electric motor, etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of 3-roll bending machines:Advantages:
The biggest advantage of 4-roll sheet bending machines over 2-roll and 3-roll type, is the ease and simplicity in simplifying the bending process. In addition to the ability to process 2-roll and 3-roll machines, some of these types also offer similar performance to press brake machines.
In addition, 4-roll sheet bending machines have the ability to create a quadrilateral shape (rectangular and square) by creating precise bends in specific areas. Also, creating various types of cones with large and small angles is one of the capabilities of these machines.
The 4-roll bending machine can create round, curved and conical parts in a certain range, and it is also possible to bend the ends of the sheets. So that the remaining straight (unbent) edges on the sheet are very small. This category of sheet metal bending machines is one of the most reliable sheet rolling machines in the production industry and its types can easily produce shapes such as oval, circle, square, arc of circle, etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of 4-roll bending machines:Advantages:
This type of machine is used to perform bending operations in different dimensions, angles and thicknesses. Press brake machines have the ability to create different bending radii and angles.
The main components of press brake machines are fixed and movable jaws (rams), V-shaped molds to create various angles of bending, the body, the control panel, the power generation and transmission system (hydraulic, pneumatic, and hydropneumatic), etc. Also, this type of machine is produced in semi-automatic and fully automatic versions, which will be discussed in the section on press machines.
Press brake is one of the popular tools for creating bends in metal sheets. With the help of various molds such as V-shaped molds, rotary bending molds, edge molds, ring molds, 90-degree molds, bend molds and many others, it can be used to bend metals in different ways. The two most commonly used types of press brakes are: mechanical press brake sheet bending machines that are powered by an electric motor and hydraulic press brake sheet bending machines that use hydraulic cylinders to apply their force.
In this method, the sheet is placed between the molds embedded between the upper and lower jaws (rams), and then by applying force to the sheet and considering the difference in size and angle between the mandrel and the matrix, the sheet is bent.
The advantages of press brake sheet bending machine include the following:
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Amada Company is one of the largest machinery manufacturers in the field of metal industry. This company produces various types of press brake machines in different tonnages and working systems. Such as hydraulic, servo-electric and mechanical press brakes, all of which are available by PLC control systems.
Folding sheet bending machines are very similar in appearance and function to press brake machines. The main difference is in the way the sheets are held, adjusted and bent.
Advantages of folding metal sheet bending machines
Due to the integrated sheet support in CNC folding sheet bending machines, much larger (but not thicker) sheets can be bent. This is a great advantage over press brake machines.
Due to the limited movement between the bending tools and the workpiece surface, less damage is done to the workpiece surface.
By entering the bending program in the PLC system of CNC folding sheet bending machines, several different and complex bending operations can be performed automatically.
Folding machines have a single set of widely used bending tools that can be used for almost any application. This eliminates the need to replace and install tools, and minimizes tool storage space.
The most widely used metal sheet bending machines that have won a great popularity are automatic metal sheet bending machines or CNC and hydraulic sheet bending machines that can operate automatically.
Types of sheet bending machines in terms of system performance:
Sheet bending or sheet forming machines can be divided based on several aspects, the most important of which are automation, structure, and mechanism. We will try to provide an overview of each and provide users with more information along with photos and videos.
How do sheet metal bending machines work?
Sheet benders or sheet forming machines can be divided into several aspects, the most important of them are automation, structure and mechanism. We will try to provide an overview of each of them and provide users with more information with photos and videos.
These devices are divided into five categories in terms of automation:
- Manual sheet bending machines
- Semi-automatic bending machines
- CNC sheet bending machines
- Fully automatic sheet bending machines
- Special bending machines
Due to the infrequent use of manual sheet benders in factories and the simplicity of using this type of machine, there is not much need for explaining these machines, and they are mostly used in folding sheets and less for forming purposes. However, it is not without merit to see some examples of special cases of this type of devices on the "Selected" page of the "Sheet bending machines". The word "manual" in the phrase "manual bending machine" does not mean that the whole process has to be done manually. In some manual bending machines, the clamping section is pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetic or electric, but the bending operation is done by the handle lever and raising it manually. The following companies are famous for manufacturing manual bending machines:
Semi-automatic sheet bending machines
Fully automatic sheet bending machines
The widespread use of this type of machine in workshops and factories has made them be known as universal sheet bending machines. Loading sheets, unloading sheets in the machine, adjusting sheets in the ram, and adjusting some parameters are all done manually, but lowering the upper ram down to the bottom at two different speeds, the functioning of safety switches, automatic control valves, and protective light curtain are done automatically at the right time. For these reasons, this type of machine is called semi-automatic. Extensive efficiency and reasonable price have made this type of machine the best-selling sheet bending machine. However, from a mechanism point of view, this type of machines are divided into three different categories: Pneumatic, hydraulic, and servo motor
Semi-automatic pneumatic sheet bending machines have high operating speed and have the ability to bend relatively thin sheets. They are marketed in C Frame or H frame models.
Their main driving force is two or three air pumps that move the ram. These types of presses are mostly used for light work and mass production. Since these machines are not highly powerful due to having pneumatic jacks, they are not used for folding and bending thick sheets. Normally, the length of the tool post of this type of machine is less than two meters. This type of machine is mostly used in home appliance manufacturing industries such as refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers, heaters and water heaters. The thickness of the sheets used in these devices is less than two millimeters and the production speed is very important. Anox World is one of the famous manufacturers of this type of machines.
When we use the term “fully automatic”, it means that loading and unloading of the sheets as well as changing their position is no longer done by the operator, and other machines perform the tasks of operators instead. In this case, it is better to use the word "line" instead of using the word "machine" or "machines"; hence put simply, they are called "Fully automatic sheet bending line". In some of these types of lines, even the sheets are transported from the warehouse to the sheet feeder by machines.
Many fully automatic machines have online measuring equipment. If a nonconformity error occurs in the production line, the error will be fixed therein. Sometimes these types of lines have robot positioning systems to move the parts quickly and correctly in the machine. This type of lines are mostly used for continuous production series or mass production and in the automotive and home appliance manufacturing industries. One of the important features of these lines is the speed of production and reduction of human error.
Folding vs. Press brake machines?
The choice of either machine depends on your working conditions. Paying attention to the functional gaps to eliminate production gaps can be effective in choosing the type of device and the production process. For example, sometimes the functional gap between hydraulic presses and folding metal sheet bending machines can be bridged by press brake sheet bending machines. Some press brake machines have a sheet holder so that the weight of large sheets can be borne and there will be no additional pressure on the operator. Others use a robotic feeding system that completely eliminates the need for an operator. Also, thanks to CNC systems, there is not much difference in production accuracy.
Folding sheet metal bending machines are generally better for bending larger but not thicker parts. On the other hand, hydraulic brake presses are used to bend thicker sheets that require more pressure. It should be noted that press brake sheet bending machines have the ability to change the mold and use composite molds that can create different angles and radii and provide more variety in production.
Therefore, to choose the right device, you must consider the ability of the device to adapt to the production process, while paying attention to the purpose of and level of your expectations from production. Adequate knowledge of the device and the process in question and paying attention to the ability and technical specifications of the device is very important.
Price of sheet metal bending machine
The price of a sheet bending machine is based on various parameters. These include the dimensions and material of the sheet, which can determine the ability of the machine, as well as the complexity of bending, production run, (non)automaticity of the machine, type of feeders and holders, etc.
Therefore, automatic sheet metal bending machines are more expensive than other types, with the price of hydraulic sheet metal bending machines being higher than that of other types. In addition, the availability of other options including feeders, the use of reputable PLC brands, etc. will also raise the price. This means that in order to buy a cheap sheet bending machine, you must specify your purpose of and expectation from the production, and make the purchase based on the production needs.
Determining the price of sheet bending machines
The first step in purchasing sheet metal bending machines is to determine the goals and level of production expectation that can determine the type of machine and its level of efficiency. Features such as the compatibility of the device with the production line, production run, and production variety can be helpful. According to the experience of the technical team at FactorNeed, technical features that can play an effective role in purchasing sheet metal bending machines include those related to the machine and those related to the product or the produced part. Preparing a plan of technical features including all the information and signs, as well as sufficient and clear explanations, allows the device manufacturer to introduce the device that best fits the buyer's needs.
Another point to consider when purchasing sheet metal bending machines is to take into account second hand sheet bending machines. If the budget required to purchase industrial machines is limited or the need for a production line is met by second-hand machines, second-hand sheet metal bending machines can be smart option.
Dear industry owners and buyers, you can specify the above information and contact FactorNid experts for more information and to receive price limits.
22 points to consider when buying a sheet bending machine (press break) are as follows:
- Describe the environmental conditions of the workplace, including humidity, temperature changes, dust levels, and proximity to other production equipment.
- Write the maximum intensity of the sound output of the sheet bending machine in decibels (DB).
- Inform the manufacturer whether you want to operate the sheet bending machine manually or automatically.
- Specify the number of working days, the number of working shifts, the working hours of each shift, and the production rate.
- Determine your desired tonnage for the sheet bending machine manufacturer. The amount of force exerted by the press on the workpiece is called the tonnage of the press.
- Determine the operating speed of the device and the speed at which the movable ram returns to the standby point. This parameter is determined based on the production rate.
- Specify the range of motion and speed of the movable ram. This includes two parameters of movement length and movable ram speed up to the moment the matrix hits the die and the degree of movement and its speed in performing bending operations. Determining this parameter allows you to calculate the time required for the production rate of products more accurately.
- You can specify the length and the width of the table, as well as the approximate dimensions of your bending machine.
- Specify the brand and model of the Programmable logic controller (PLC). LG, Siemens, ABB, Omron, and Fanuc are a few cases in point.
- Specify that its PLC be able to receive the plan directly from the coding software.
- If necessary, you can specify for the manufacturer of the sheet bending machine whether the electronic panel of the PLC is movable or not.
- Specify the type and brand of hydraulic cylinder.
- The output power of embedded electromotors can be determined.
- Write your request to the manufacturer indicating the presence or absence of a heater for the hydraulic chamber.
- The sheet adjuster behind the table of the bending machine allows the sheet to be put in place before the bending operation. You can inform the sheet bending machine manufacturer of whether you need a sheet holder or not.
- If you need a power supply system, specify the type of system and write the desired production rate.
- Installing different bending dies on the machine allows you to produce more complex shapes. Talk to the manufacturer about this.
- It is advisable to send the technical information and brand of high-consumption parts, wires, hydraulic pipes, hydraulic cylinders, clamps, tool posts, rails, brand and model of motors, keyboards, etc. to the manufacturer.
- Ask the manufacturer to send you a list of technical information and a map of used and worn parts.
- It is recommended to indicate the amount of load that the hydraulic pipes and clamps must withstand.
- Ask the manufacturer for the electrical circuit diagram of the device, hydraulic circuit, part list, cable connection, device maintenance manual, and the predicted errors.
- Include the necessary agreements regarding the manufacturer's after-sales services such as transportation, installation, training, replacement and repair warranty, etc. in the contract and have them signed by both parties.
It is one of the most famous companies in the field of manufacturing fully automatic bending machines. This company can manufacture all kinds of fully automatic sheet bending machines. Most of the company's machines are equipped with interconnection and smart line features. In the video below, you can see one of the fully automatic machines of this company.
CIDAN Company :
CIDAN company is one of the powerful companies in the field of design and production of various industrial machines (sheet metal work). In addition to peripherals (decoylers and feeders), the company also produces portable sheet bending machines and portable roll forming machines. The following video is one of the sheet bending machines of this company.
More information about Sheet Bending Machines
Selected films of sheet metal bending machines
Metal sheets are one of the most widely used materials in the industry. Their types are produced in different ways and for different purposes. Metal sheets are used for the body of industrial machines, cars, home appliances, etc. To use the sheets, they have to be shaped into different shapes, so several machines with different capabilities are designed and built. The following videos can be very helpful if you are planning to select and buy a sheet metal bending machine.Read More