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Mechanical Press Machine
More than a hundred years ago, industrial press machines were introduced to the world of metal industries and turned to be a turning point in this field. As shown by their name, these type of press machines utilize a mechanical system in order to transmit power in the production processes. Mechanical press machines transmit the power of an electromotor to the Ram through either a fly wheel or sometimes a clutch system, so that they can run the press process.
- Knuckle-Joint Mechanism
- Eccentric Shaft
- Rack and Pinion
The tonnage of a mechanical press machine can be designed based on the user’s requirements. The most powerful mechanical press machine that has ever been built and designed in modern production industries has the capacity of 12000 tons. It is needless to say that their conventional tonnage is much smaller than this figure.
The classification of mechanical press machines based on their mechanisms:
- All types of mechanical press brake machines
- All types of Forming Mechanical Press Machines
- All types of Forging Mechanical Press Machines (Exclusive for Blacksmithing)
- All types of Stroke Press Machines
- All types of Punching Press Machines
- All types of Stamping Press Machines
- All types of Power Press Machines
The classification of mechanical press machines, exclusive for metals, based on material of the workpiece:
- All types of mechanical press machines for pressing steel sheets
- All types of mechanical press machines for pressing galvanized sheets
- All types of mechanical press machines for pressing oil sheets
- All types of mechanical press machines for washers
The classification of mechanical press machines based on their frame design:
- Inclinable Frame Presses
- Gap Frame Presses
- Straight Side Presses
- Adjustable Bed Type Press
- Open End Presses
Since these types of press machines are flexible and can move to their back (to the desired incline), they are known as inclinable. You can incline it to whatever angle that you want and then lock it there. Since in the back of these machines, there is a gate that opens to discharge the workpiece, they are also known as “Open Back Press Machines”.
These presses are known as C-Frame as well. Mouth of these press machines is bigger in comparison to other types of presses, which shows that there is a large gap between the Bed and the Ram. Therefore, gap frame press machines are best to use if your workpiece is large.
As their name indicates, these types of presses have straight sides, which make them suitable for a big table with high tonnages. Straight side press machines can provide a bigger and more intense stroke.
Since this type of press machine possesses a knee-shaped table which is attached to a column-shaped base, they are known as both column press machines and knee press machines . The table of a knee press machine can be set through an adjusting screw (Fitting Bolt) to higher or lower levels and can be fixed to any desired position. This structure has less strength than other press machines.
This type of press has a strong vertical frame with its sides open. In contrast to other types of press machines, the directing mechanism and the controller mechanism are posited in the back and in the front of the machine, respectively. In this structure, the frame and the workpiece are fixed on each other properly. Open end presses are also known as Light Job (Light Task, Light Work) press machines.
Advantages of a mechanical press machine:
- Higher production pace in comparison to a hydraulic press machine
- Great repeatability along with great accuracy.
- Simple functional settings
- A relatively economical choice
The comparison of hydraulic press machines with mechanical press machines:
- Mechanical presses, in contrast with hydraulic press machines, do not have a uniform moving cycle. Therefore, they produce enormous noise.
- length Stroke is much bigger in hydraulic press machines.
- Mechanical presses have bigger inertia.
- Mechanical presses are faster.
- The engine used in hydraulic press machine must be big, but mechanical presses can use a smaller one.
- Whereas hydraulic press machines are used for heavy processes with a low production rate, mechanical ones are better in light pressing processes which need a high production rate.
- There is no fly wheel in the structure of a hydraulic press machine.
- While mechanical press machines impose their maximum pressure just at the end of the stroke length, hydraulic presses are able to enforce their maximum power all through the length.
- Mechanical press machines are not functional in some processes such as deep drawing.
- Repair and maintenance costs are substantially lower for mechanical press machines.
- Installment and running a mechanical press machine is less costly.
- Hydraulic press machines occupy less space in comparison to a mechanical one.
Mechanical punch press machines
Different systems are designed and built for cutting metal parts, especially sheets. A case in point is to use mechanical presses to make cuts with different shapes on the sheet, which we will examine in the following.
A mechanical punching machine is a machine that is used to create cuts with high accuracy and strength and in different shapes. To make different cuts, a cutting tool is needed, which is called the die. The material of dies is mainly selected from SPK steel, because due to the presence of high CR chromium in it, dies will be resistant to abrasion and have the desired strength against impact. These dies can be designed and manufactured in different ways according to the production needs.
Punch presses generally use two-piece dies (mandrel and matrix). The upper part of the die in which the mandrel is located is attached to the upper movable ram of the press while the lower part of the die in which the matrix is created is attached to the fixed ram of the press. After the workpiece enters the die and is placed between the mandrel and the matrix, the moving force of the mechanical press machine is exerted into the mandrel and then onto the sheet, and the cutting operation is performed. It should be noted that not only are such dies used for cutting operations but also they can be designed and produced as a composite die according to the production needs. In addition to cutting operations, composite dies can be used in sheet forming and stretching operations.
This wheel is connected to the main shaft and transfers energy to the shaft and then to the mandrel (the movable ram) when a punching operation is needed. The advantage of this is to increase the impact power and reduce the pressure on the electric motor.
Mechanical punch presses are generally driven by electric motors where power is transmitted to the main shaft and ram using crankshaft or camshaft mechanisms. The types of devices that are suitable for punching operations are:
- Mechanical punch presses
- Hydraulic punch presses
- Pneumatic punching presses
- Servo punches
- Robotic punching systems
- Ultrasonic punching devices
In general, punch presses are identified and measured by the following parameters:
- Type of die (shear or composite)
- Power transmission mechanism
- Dimensions and size of the work environment (the place where the die is closed)
- Speed and efficiency
- Impact-free movement speed
- Maximum weight of dies and parts
- Safety features
- Power consumption
- Type of software used
Presses suitable for punching are generally of two types: C-frame and portal. Mechanical punch presses use the C-frame because it is open from three directions and the die can be easily closed inside. The sheet can also be automatically inserted on one side and expelled on the other. The upper and lower plates of the press have T-shaped slots that can be fastened to the die with T-shaped screws. The table of the press or the lower ram has a hole that is used to remove the extra cuts or cut parts from that place.
Harsle Company is one of the manufacturers of light and heavy presses in China. The machine you see in the video below is a mechanical punch press machine manufactured by this company.
Sangiacomo Presse Company:
This Italian company is active in the field of designing and manufacturing various types of press machines. The press machines made by this company include C-FRAME PRESSES and STRAIGHT-SIDE PRESSES and their accessories. The video below shows a fully automatic STRAIGHT-SIDE press equipped with a Progressive template.